Is Skipping Breakfast Linked to Type-2 Diabetes?

By now, most people know that skipping breakfast isn’t the best idea. New evidence, however, has revealed another reason to take an extra moment for your morning meal, claiming that missing even one breakfast each week can increase your risk of type-2 diabetes by 20 percent.

A recent study conducted by Harvard University and published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition analyzed the eating habits and health outcomes of nearly 50,000 women over the course of six years.

After adjusting the results to account for the effects of age, BMI, alcohol and nicotine intake, physical activity, and other lifestyle factors, the researchers found that eating breakfast had significant health impacts. Their study concluded that the women who had skipped breakfast throughout the study had been diagnosed with type-2 diabetes at a 20 percent higher rate than their breakfast-eating counterparts.

Rania Mekary, a research associate at the Harvard University School of Public Health, claims that when you don’t consume a morning meal to “break the fast,” your insulin level drops further from the level it rests at while you sleep. Therefore, when you eat lunch later in the day, your lower insulin levels are more likely to spike and then crash.

Mekary states that, over time, this constant flux in insulin levels leads your body to build up an insulin resistance that commonly leads to type-2 diabetes. Some nutritionists suggest that, for this reason, even an unhealthy breakfast is better for preventing diabetes than not eating breakfast at all.

With that being said, the best breakfast is one that is low and sugar and high in fiber and protein so that it keeps you full until lunch and boosts your energy levels to get you through the morning.

Start your day off with this Asparagus Scrambled Eggs Recipe to give yourself a boost of morning protein and potentially lower your blood pressure. If you prefer something sweet in the morning, this Steel-Cut Oatmeal with Cherries will satisfy your sweet tooth without overloading your body with added sugars.

Skipping Breakfast a Bad Idea for People with Type 2 Diabetes

Missing morning meal could raise blood sugar levels the rest of the day, study says.

- Serena Gordon
HealthDay Reporter

You've probably heard why skipping breakfast is a bad choice for your health. In this HealthDay article, however, we learn that it's especially dangerous for people with type 2 diabetes. Why? Because it can negatively affect blood sugars. Read below for more information on these study findings, or learn about Life Line Screening's type 2 diabetes screening today.

Running out the door without eating breakfast isn't a good idea for anyone, but new research suggests that for people with type 2 diabetes, skipping the morning meal may wreak havoc on blood sugar levels for the rest of the day.

In a small clinical trial, researchers found that when people with diabetes skipped breakfast, their lunchtime blood sugar levels were 37 percent higher than on a day they ate breakfast. And blood sugar levels were still higher at dinnertime on the day the study volunteers skipped breakfast -- 27 percent higher, the study said.

""This is of high relevance since skipping breakfast has progressively increased over the past decades in Western society,"" said the study's lead author, Dr. Daniela Jakubowicz, a professor of medicine at Tel Aviv University in Israel.

What's more, she said, high blood sugar levels after meals are strongly associated with a rapid decline in beta-cell function. Beta cells are the cells in the pancreas that produce insulin, a hormone that's necessary for the body to use the carbohydrates in food as fuel.

High blood sugar peaks are also linked to earlier development of heart disease complications, Jakubowicz added.

Results of the study were published recently in Diabetes Care.

Jakubowicz and her team showed earlier that eating a big breakfast and a light dinner may be beneficial. In a study published in February in Diabetologia, the researchers found that people with type 2 diabetes who ate a big breakfast and a light dinner had blood sugar levels that were 20 percent lower than people who had a small breakfast and big dinner.

In the current study, the researchers recruited 22 people with type 2 diabetes. Their average age was 57 years old. Their body mass index (BMI) was just over 28. BMI is rough estimate of how much body fat a person has, and a BMI of 28 means a person is overweight, but not obese.

Over two days, all of the participants ate the same meal at every meal -- milk, tuna, bread and a chocolate breakfast bar, Jakubowicz said. On one day, they ate three meals -- breakfast, lunch and dinner. On the second day, they skipped breakfast, but had lunch and dinner.

On the day they ate three meals, the average glucose peak after lunch was 192 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL). After dinner, it was 215 mg/dL, the study revealed. But on the day of no breakfast, the average glucose peak climbed to 268 mg/dL after lunch and to 298 mg/dL after dinner, the researchers said. (A normal blood sugar level is below 126 mg/dL.)

Jakubowicz said it seems that beta cells ""lose their memory"" due to the prolonged fast. ""Therefore, it takes additional time after lunch for the beta cells to recover, causing small and delayed insulin responses, and resulting in exaggerate elevation of blood glucose levels throughout the day on the no-breakfast day,"" she said.

Maudene Nelson, a certified diabetes educator and nutritionist at Columbia University in New York City, also noted that skipping breakfast led to higher levels of glucagon secretion, which raises blood sugar levels. ""Once blood sugar levels are high, it's harder to clean up 'the mess' as the day goes on,"" explained Nelson, who wasn't involved with the study.

""In the past, I've been somewhat laid back when people tell me they skip breakfast or only have coffee, because we all have our habits,"" Nelson said, adding that the findings inspire her to tell patients skipping breakfast is not OK.

Jakubowicz said protein is an important component of any breakfast. She said it aids in ""intellectual concentration"" and helps you feel full. Nelson said good sources of protein include eggs, yogurt, cottage cheese or beans. She said the tuna offered in the study was also a good source of protein, and she said lean ham, preferably low-sodium, could be an occasional option.

Nelson also recommended adding fruit or a whole grain to breakfast. But most cereals don't have enough fiber to be a good choice for people with type 2 diabetes, she said.

Jakubowicz' final advice for people with type 2 diabetes is simple: ""Never skip breakfast.""

She said it's not clear if the results would be the same in people with type 1 diabetes, and that she's planning a trial to see the effects of skipping breakfast in people with type 1 diabetes. She also noted that for women with diabetes in pregnancy (gestational diabetes), skipping meals isn't healthy for the baby, and could lead to excessive weight gain.

Skipping Breakfast: Bad Idea for People With Type 2 Diabetes

Breakfast, often called the most important meal of the day, may be especially crucial if you have type 2 diabetes, new research suggests.

"It is quite remarkable that, in our study in type 2 diabetes individuals, the omission of breakfast was associated with a significant increase in all-day blood sugar spikes," says Daniela Jakubowicz, M.D., a professor in the diabetes unit at the E. Wolfson Medical Center, Tel Aviv University and Tel Aviv Medical Center.

Skipping breakfast increased blood sugar levels after both lunch and dinner, she found. In the study, she evaluated 22 patients with type 2 diabetes who had been diagnosed about 8 years earlier. Their average age was about 57. Ten managed their condition with diet, and the other 12 controlled their blood sugar by both diet and metformin. Their average body mass index or BMI was 28, considered overweight but not obese.

Evaluations were done on two different days. On one, the men and women ate lunch and dinner at specific times. On another day, they ate all three meals, again at specific times. The meals were the same—milk, tuna, bread and a chocolate breakfast bar. The researchers measured blood sugar levels after meals.

The rise in blood sugar levels was surprising, Dr. Jakubowicz says. The study is published in October in Diabetes Care and was published earlier online. "We found that participants experienced extraordinary glucose peaks of 268 mg/dl after lunch and 298 mg/dl after dinner on days they skipped breakfast," she says, "versus only 192 mg/dl, and 215 mg/dl after eating an identical lunch and dinner on days they ate breakfast." They measured after meals up to 3 hours after starting to eat. (According to the American Diabetes Association, those practicing tight control of their disease should aim for a blood sugar of less than 180 mg/dl 1-2 hours after eating.)

Put another way, on a day when the men and women skipped breakfast, lunchtime blood sugar levels were 37 percent higher then on the day they ate breakfast and they were 27 percent higher at dinner time.

"This means that reducing the amount of starch and sugars in lunch and dinner [in attempts to better control blood sugar] will have no effect on reducing elevated glucose levels if diabetic individuals also skip breakfast," she says.

Her bottom line? Even if you don't overeat at lunch and dinner after skipping breakfast, skipping the first meal of the day can cause ''major damage to the beta cell function."

While many researchers have studied the value of breakfast, this new study is valuable because if focused on those with diabetes, says Minisha Sood, MD, director of inpatient diabetes at Lenox Hill Hospital, New York. She reviewed the findings. The new study also looks at the entire day and the effect of skipping breakfast, which gives a more realistic view of the impact, Dr. Sood says.

She tells those with type 2 diabetes to eat breakfast and make it ''a balanced meal consisting of a reasonable ratio of lean protein, carbs and fat." For instance? Try an egg white frittata sautéed in extra virgin olive oil with vegetables and a slice of multigrain toast, she says.

The new study findings may seem to conflict with other recent research finding that a fasting mimicking diet or FMD may slow aging and reduce the risk of chronic diseases, including diabetes. In one study, those who followed the FMD reduced their fasting blood sugar by more than 11 percent.

However, the fasting diet is not suggested for those on diabetes medications or on insulin. And that knocks out many people with type 2 diabetes, Dr. Sood says. "The vast majority are on medications," she said. "Probably 80 percent [are]."

Bottom line, according to the author of the new research? "In light of our study, we highly recommend that those with type 2 diabetes not skip breakfast," Dr. Jakubowicz says, ''because it causes major damage to the beta cell function and leads to high sugar levels, even if they don't overeat at lunch and dinner."

Not Eating Breakfast May Be Tied to Other Unhealthy Behaviors

Study authors point out that the elevated diabetes risk in breakfast skippers may be linked to other unhealthy lifestyle behaviors. Those who miss breakfast are more likely to smoke, be less inclined to exercise, and drink more alcohol, according to the report.

“People who skip breakfast also may end up eating more total calories throughout the day, which has been demonstrated in many studies,” says Jan Rystrom, RD, a diabetes educator at Swedish Medical Center in Seattle, who was not involved in the investigation. A diet high in calories from any source contributes to weight gain, and weight gain heightens your risk for type 2 diabetes, according to the according to the American Diabetes Association.

Rystrom recommends that people with diabetes eat three to five times daily, at three- to five-hour intervals throughout the day. Eating regular meals helps maintain blood sugar control.

Other scientific investigations have shown additional benefits of eating a healthy breakfast. An article published in November 2012 in the American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine suggested young people who eat breakfast regularly tend to make healthier food choices throughout the day and have better weight control than those who don’t, thereby reducing their risk for diabetes. Plus, the American Heart Association says that eating breakfast lowers the risk of heart disease, blood vessel diseases, and stroke.

On the other hand, some research, such as evidence in an article published in May 2015 in the International Journal of Obesity, has suggested that skipping breakfast may have health benefits as a part of an intermittent fasting (IF) program.

“Many of our patients are choosing some intermittent fasting and find they do have better glucose control and better weight loss, but it is coupled with an appropriate diet, appropriate calorie intake, and lower carb intake,” says Rystrom. Regardless, more studies are needed to know what benefits, for people at risk for diabetes or otherwise, IF may offer.

What did the research involve?

The researchers used information collected from 4,116 children who had participated in the Child Heart And health Study in England (CHASE) between 2004 and 2007. This study invited children aged nine and 10 from 200 randomly selected schools in London, Birmingham and Leicester to take part in a survey looking at risk factors for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease.

This included questionnaires, measures of body fat and a fasting blood sample, taken eight to 10 hours after their last meal.

One of the questions related to how often they ate breakfast, with the following possible responses:

Children from the last 85 schools were also interviewed by a research nutritionist to determine their food and drink intake in the previous 24 hours.

They analysed the data looking for an association between breakfast consumption and insulin resistance and higher blood sugar levels adjusting the results to take into account age, sex, ethnicity, day of the week and month, and school.

Can skipping breakfast increase risk of type 2 diabetes?

The prevalence of type 2 diabetes has been dramatically increasing worldwide and is a major health concern. Many well-known lifestyle factors are associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes now, a recent study published in the January 2019 issue of The Journal of Nutrition suggests that skipping breakfast should be added to the list. Although previous studies have demonstrated an association between breakfast skipping and type 2 diabetes, this lifestyle choice was treated as a dichotomous variable.

A research team led by Dr. Aurélie Ballon from the German Diabetes Center hypothesized that not only is there an association between breakfast skipping and type 2 diabetes, but this relation presents in a consistent dose-response manner.

Data for this study were obtained by a systematic review and meta-analysis of 6 prospective cohort studies on breakfast skipping and risk of type 2 diabetes in adults. Breakfast skipping was analyzed as a continuous variable in order to determine whether the risk increased with increased frequency of breakfast skipping (i.e. a dose-response). The influence of body mass index on the association between breakfast skipping and risk of type 2 diabetes was also considered in the final analysis.

Nonlinear dose-response meta-analysis indicated that risk of type 2 diabetes increased with every additional day of breakfast skipping, reaching a plateau at 4‒5 days a week. No further increase in risk of type 2 diabetes was observed after 5 days of breakfast skipping per week. This association was partly mediated by obesity, but a positive association persisted after adjustment for obesity, suggesting that other factors might also influence this association. The researchers concluded, “future studies should also focus on breakfast quality.” In other words, would consuming an unhealthy breakfast be better than skipping breakfast altogether?

Breakfast-skipping linked to type 2 diabetes

(Cleveland) - Growing up, your mother probably insisted that breakfast was the ‘most important meal of the day.’ According to a recent study, mom may be right.

The study looked at data on 96,175 people to see if skipping breakfast had an impact on their health.

“What they found, was that the more people skipped breakfast – the more days a week – the higher their risk of type 2 diabetes,” said Cleveland Clinic wellness expert Michael Roizen, M.D., who did not take part in the study.

In fact, researchers found that just one day of skipping breakfast was associated with a six percent increased risk of developing type two diabetes in comparison with people who never skipped their morning meal.

And the risk rose with each additional day that breakfast was skipped – to as high as 55 percent - if a person skipped breakfast four to five days per week.

Dr. Roizen said it’s best to eat your carbs at breakfast, because the morning is the time when your body is the most insulin-sensitive.

He suggested people think of breakfast as the new ‘dinner’ in order to avoid a spike in blood sugar later in the day.

To get the most out of your metabolism, Dr. Roizen recommends eating most of the day’s calories during the daylight hours and not late into the evening.

“Eat only when the sun is out or when the sun is supposed to be out,” he said. “Eat more early, eat less later and don’t stereotype food – you can eat ‘dinner’ food for breakfast.”

Skipping Breakfast Increases the Risk of Type 2 Diabetes

“Eat Breakfast like a King, Lunch like a Prince and Dinner like a Pauper.” You might have come across this famous quote somewhere. Truth being said, breakfast is the most important meal of the day. Everyone has been told that by their parents, family members and even doctors! Certainly, the meal you start your day off with has a number of advantages to offer. Now most importantly, it can lessen the risk of Type 2 diabetes.

One such study was investigated in detail by German scientists. They wanted to find the relationship between breakfast and the risk of Type 2 Diabetes. Whether skipping the “most important meal” has any effect whatsoever. The findings were documented in The Journal of Nutrition.

It is pertinent to note one important thing at the same time. 30 million people in the US are inflicted with diabetes. 90% are those who have been classified as Type 2.

Breakfast & Type 2 Diabetes: What the study found?

The hypothesis initially put forward was that breakfast can have a positive effect on reducing the risk of Diabetes. To find out more about it, a large sample of almost 100,000 people were tested. The study was conducted in six separate intervals.

Among the sample population were people who followed the habit of having breakfast regularly. Their results were compared with people who skipped breakfast altogether. Also included were those who would have breakfast occasionally. Blood samples of all the three groups were then tested for Type 2 Diabetes.

The results confirmed the initial hypothesis the scientists had. Having breakfast daily was associated with a lower risk of Type 2 diabetes. People who did not follow such a routine had increased their chances by 6%. People who missed the meal for 5 days in a week had a high risk, nearing 55%. Those intermittently skipping were also directed to make changes in their morning schedule.

Overall, the results proved that breakfast plays a vital role in determining the chances of diabetes infliction. The risk is supposedly going to be higher for people who are overweight and fail to exercise frequently.

How breakfast reduces the risk?

Medical professionals are now trying to explain how having breakfast can lessen the risk. To understand that, it is important to highlight the link between blood sugar and insulin.

When a person skips the morning meal, it will increase the insulin resistance in the body. Higher resistance means that the body is unable to secrete the necessary amount of insulin to regulate blood sugar. As a result of this, the blood sugar level enhances. If this condition develops into a chronic stage, a person develops the risk of Type 2 diabetes.

Skipping breakfast is also linked to higher blood sugar levels during lunch and dinner time. It can greatly affect the metabolism rate putting the body under unnecessary stress.

More importantly, skipping meal induces a higher appetite. A person ends up overeating which can lead to obesity-related complication.

Thereby, to lessen the risk of Type 2 Diabetes, it is important to re-evaluate your dietary choices. Needless to say, never make it a point to skip your breakfast meal.

Study: Skipping Breakfast Increases Risk of Type 2 Diabetes

If you skip breakfast on a regular basis, you may be setting yourself up to develop type 2 diabetes. Eating breakfast increases metabolism and what kinds of foods you eat for this important meal can also have an impact on your ability to lose weight and maintain it.

Protein, Carbohydrates and Insulin Resistance

Eating a breakfast that is higher in protein than carbohydrates improves feelings of satisfaction and fullness. Researchers now understand that foods high in protein send chemicals to the brain that tell the digestive system it is satisfied and reduces the impulse to eat. By eating a breakfast that contains approximately one-third of your daily protein needs, you can avoid the impulse to snack and feel satisfied until lunch.

Carbohydrates, on the other hand, require more time for your body to recognize and feel satisfied with during meals. Eating a breakfast that consists primarily of processed carbohydrates, particularly if it contains high levels of processed sugars, may result in eating more food than necessary. This can lead to weight gain and set your entire day toward the impulse to eat more processed foods between meals, since your body does not feel satisfied.

Researchers have also found that skipping meals can result in insulin resistance. Insulin resistance is a distinctive characteristic of type 2 diabetes and pre-diabetes conditions. Interestingly, researchers have found that routinely skipping breakfast can result in a 30 percent increased likelihood of developing type 2 diabetes because of insulin resistance. However, individuals who eat breakfast can cut their risk of diabetes by 5 percent for each day of the week they eat breakfast.

For people trying to lose weight, breakfast can become an extremely effective tool. Eating a breakfast high in protein can help you lose weight faster and more effectively than only eating two meals a day with most of your calories.

If you do not already start your day with breakfast on a regular basis, consider taking a few minutes to eat a low fat, high protein meal. A cup of yogurt, cottage cheese or eggs can be a great way to boost your metabolism and stave off insulin resistance, improving your overall health.

Implications for Practice

To solve the contradictory findings on the topic of breakfast skipping and type 2 diabetes risk, well-designed randomized clinical trials of ≥5–6 mo are still needed. Randomization will wash out all confounders and breakfast would be administered consistently to the treatment arm. Prospective cohort studies with repeated measures could also be very useful if the breakfast consumption exposure was standardized in terms of content and timing. Other potential confounders and effect modifiers including but not limited to physical activity, diet quality, age category, family history, and other comorbidities need to be assessed. An ensuing dose-response meta-analysis of these original studies would then be invaluable.

Watch the video: Reversing Type 2 diabetes starts with ignoring the guidelines. Sarah Hallberg. TEDxPurdueU (December 2021).