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Kiam chye ark (Duck soup with pickled mustard greens) recipe


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  • Dish type
  • Soup

Chinese New Year is coming, so I though it would be a timely to share a recipe which my family will be having on New Year's day. The soup is both sour and salty from the pickled mustard greens and preserved plums.


Leicestershire, England, UK

4 people made this

IngredientsServes: 4

  • 300g kiam chye (Chinese pickled mustard greens)
  • 3 to 4 duck legs, cut into 4 pieces each
  • 1 white onion, cut into 4 to 6 wedges
  • 30g root ginger, sliced
  • 5 cloves garlic
  • 1 teaspoon white peppercorns, lightly crushed
  • 1 piece nutmeg, cracked and use the kernel
  • 1.3 to 2L hot water
  • 1 large tomato, cut into wedges
  • 2 to 4 Chinese preserved plums, as needed

MethodPrep:30min ›Cook:1hr20min ›Extra time:30min soaking › Ready in:2hr20min

  1. Cut the pickled mustard greens into bite size pieces and taste; it is usually very salty. Soak for about 30 minutes in cold water and test again. If it is still very salty, rinse and soak for another 30 minutes.
  2. Take a large pot and add in all the ingredients except the tomatoes and plums. Squash 2 plums with your fingers and add to the pot. Add in 1.3L hot water and bring to the boil.
  3. Boil for 10 minutes, skimming off any foam that rises to the surface. Simmer for about 1 hour so that the duck meat and vegetables are soft.
  4. Adjust the taste. If it is not salty or sour enough, put in an additional plum at a time until you get the taste that you want. You can add extra salt as needed.
  5. Add the tomatoes and add more water if necessary. Simmer for another 10 to 15 minutes.
  6. Remove the sliced ginger. Dish out and serve.

Tip

If you are using a slow cooker, cook on High for 4 hours.

See it on my blog

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Kiam chye ark (Duck soup with pickled mustard greens) recipe - Recipes

I'm no.1 today, any prize, hehehe! This dish huh(similar dish), my old neighbours used to cook it after a wedding or big chinese festival when they had lots of left over roasted pork(siew yoke), roasted ducks & chicken. And the neighbours(the good cooks) would then give away some to every other families. I normally used the smoke pork knuckle to cook chowder like lentil and smoke knuckle soup, yum yum! Your dish is making me salivating!

Jessie, you so fast leh! As I understand it, this soup is normally cooked with leftovers. But because I was not happy with the hard German pork knuckle, I cooked it this way and loved it. I must try cooking with lentils too for a different type of soup.

Hi Phong Hong, this dish, my family favourite which I will be cooking during CNY. I believe many people loves this traditional dish.

Kimmy, I also see it being sold at chap fan stalls. But not so convenient to tapau and eat in the office. So I enjoy it at home :)

Hi Phong Hong! My mom used to cook this dish on the 1st day of CNY but not anymore since she's a grandma! LOL Yours look so yummy & it's been ages that I did not eat this! I love the sour taste of this dish! YUM! )

Kit, I really love the salty, sour and smoked flavours of this soup especially if it had been kept for 2-3 days. I can have just a bowl of the soup as my main meal.

My mom will make this dish either on the 2nd or 3rd day of CNY with all the leftovers roast meat. I still do that once I accumulate enough roast meat in my freezer. We call it chye boey

Gertrude, it's a good idea to recycle the leftover roasts to make this soup. I will consider that if I have leftovers and see how is the taste.

oooo. meleleh air liur. Have you tried with fresh mustard? I sometimes use bacon hock. and fresh mustard . not quite sure why never thought of kiam chye :)

Actually I forgot about using fresh mustard. Somehow whenever I cook this soup, which is not that often, I forget. Next round I will add fresh mustard too :)

Hi Phong Hong your dish makes me feel hungry although I had my meal 3 hours ago .I make satay .This dish goes well with hot sambal belachan pound with extra few chilli padi Oomp.your Aunty is very happy to know that your like this dish of her's.And now at long last you have finally cook the dish .She is very proud of you.The next time you cook try adding some fresh mustard .OO lah-lah only wish I was there to eat your soup.Never think of it I will cook this dish for CNY and Emily requested for Kerabu

EE, thank you for teaching me how to cook this soup! I forgot about the fresh mustard. And yes, this one is explosive with sambal belacan, yum, yum!

Wah, PH, yu buy german pork knuckle for this dish. its suposed to be a poor man's dish where all leftovers are thrown together and lotsof sour stuffs to mask any funny flavours. your version is such a treat! I love love love this dish, my mum makes a killer pot on the 2nd day, using all the leftovers. I could just eat this for days on end and not get bored.

I am rather extravagant, aren't I, Esther? You see, leftovers are a very rare thing in my house. We are all voracious eaters (think piranhas and bottomless pits) and there's no chance to cook this soup hah! hah! Since using that hard and dry pork knuckle, I will buy it whenever I crave for this soup.

Hi Phong Hong,
My keyboard is wet! I'm simply drooling. big drools! I totally love this dish, could eat a big bowl (and seconds) without any other dish! There are so many versions of this dish, I sapu all versions! Haha! Either Kam chye or fresh mustard, both are delicious! Have been thinking of this since this morning when I saw the fresh mustard at the wet market! Planning to cook this after I'm back from CNY! I usually use roasted pork bones, bought from the stall that sells "siu yok" at the morning market. Must look for the frozen roasted pork knuckle from JJ, I never knew they have that!
Yum, yum, I wish this is my dinner tonight!!

Joyce, you must really love this soup! Sometimes I have this soup just by itself as my main meal. I can't get enough of it and as my auntie said it is even better with sambal belacan. I'm thinking of cooking another batch soon and this time I will try with fresh mustard. Yes, do cook some when you get the roasted pork knuckle :)


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The traditional products, local breeds, and know-how collected by the Ark of Taste belong to the communities that have preserved them over time. They have been shared and described here thanks to the efforts of the network that that Slow Food has developed around the world, with the objective of preserving them and raising awareness. The text from these descriptions may be used, without modifications and citing the source, for non-commercial purposes in line with the Slow Food philosophy Tuck in the wings and webs of the duck, then allow to marinate for 1-2 hours, or preferably overnight. Wash, peel and slice the ginger and blue ginger (galangal). Then peel and wash the garlic. Stuff the ginger, blue ginger and garlic into the cavity of the duck

With a dark plumage embellished with irridescent blue and green feathres, the Kriaxera duck is a rustic poultry breed that can be raised in the open air, in grassy fields with the presence of small streams. THis duck breed is therefore particularly well adapted to small-scale breeding on farms. The high quality of the meat is the result of a varied diet based on corn (local varieties), grass and small insects which are eagerly consumed by the ducks. The characteristcs of the meat are in fact. In ARK: Survival Evolved, the Terror Bird eats Regular Kibble, Gallimimus Kibble, Raw Mutton, Raw Prime Meat, Cooked Lamb Chop, Cooked Prime Meat, Raw Prime Fish Meat, Raw Meat, Cooked Prime Fish Meat, Cooked Meat, Raw Fish Meat, and Cooked Fish Meat Since the foundation of the Ark in 1996, 4866 products (October 2018) from over 149 countries have been included and growing daily. The list includes not only prepared foods and food products, but also a great many livestock breeds, as well as vegetable and fruit cultivars. All foods in the catalogue are accompanied by a list of resources for those wishing to grow or buy them May 29, 2013 - If there was ever any doubt about the quality of our duck food, here's a carefully selected expert panel testing it. I think you'll agree it passed :) May 29, 2013 - If there was ever any doubt about the quality of our duck food, here's a carefully selected expert panel testing it. I think you'll agree it passed :).. Saved from youtube.com. ARK Duck & Swan Floating Food. If.

All Cooped Up - Chicken Houses, hen houses, duck houses and goose houses, poultry arks, bird houses, dovecotes, livestock & poultry supplies. [email protected] 01293 691122 Menu Search Sign In | Account. Cart 0. Recently added item(s) ×. You have no items in your shopping cart. Search: Search. My Account My Cart Checkout Register Log In F T G Aviaries and Aviary Panels. Join Nitz, Ghost and friends as they exxplore Ark's newest DLC, Ark Ragnarok. Watch as they try to survive some new Dinos like the Ice Wyvern, Griffin, Lava. The drake's back of the head is olive green and black in the duck. Its beak is olive green for the drake, black for the duck. This bird is average size, with a carcass weighing from 1.8 to 2.3kg (the duck weighs between 2.3 and 2.8kg and the drake between 2.8 and 3.2kg). The duck lays very light bluish-green coloured eggs. This good layer can produce up to 150 eggs a year, each about 70g. The ducklings grow rapidly and can be consumed at 12 weeks. Smaller than its cousin, the famous Rouen. Cayuga duck eggs can be used for general eating and baking purposes the whites are firmer than chicken eggs. The bird was raised in large numbers on duck farms until the 1890's when the Peking duck came to dominate the duckling market in the big cities. Today, the Cayuga Duck is listed as threatened on the American Livestock Breeds Conservancy's Conservation Priority List. This.

.. Food. 1,200 + 120 + 10 % AVG Ranked 83. Weight. 100 + 2 + 4 % AVG Ranked 106. Melee Damage . 100 % + 5 % + 2.1 % AVG Ranked 82. Movement Speed. 120 % — + 2.5 % Torpor. 176 + 10.53 — AVG Ranked 99. Stat Calculator * Rank of the Base Stat of the Arthropluera vs. all other creatures. (Rank #1 in Health = highest Health creature.) ABSOLUTE STATS. 18. PRIMARY ATTACK. 30. SECONDARY ATTACK. We would also like to welcome you to join our Mummy's Kitchen Facebook Group for food lovers like you, whether newbie or veteran. Serves 4 to 5 persons. Ingredients. ½ duck (weighing about 1.2kg) 300g salted mustard green (kiam chye) 4 to 5 pieces pickled plums. 2 medium-sized tomatoe

The Swedish blue duck is especially difficult to raise, so much so that the population today has just 148 setting ducks, and already in 2007 FAO indicated its conservation status as critical in successive years, other organisations also catalogued it as one of the breeds at risk. The remaining few who still raise them do so for its meat and mainly for its eggs - each duck lays between 100. Kriaxera Duck, Slow Food, 2010, From the collection of: Slow Food Foundation for Biodiversity - Ark of Taste Today, the Kriaxera duck is raised in the northern Basque Country by about 30 small-scale farmers, and additionally by about 50 private hobby farmers who appreciate this breed, for a total of about 35,000 ducks in the region of Aquitania

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Teochew Braised Duck or Lor Ark (潮州卤鸭) October 8, 2014 Kenneth Goh. 19 Comments. INTRODUCTION. There are many many recipes of Teochew style braised ducks.. and every household will claim that his or her recipe is the best..However, I dare not to claim that mine is the best or the most authentic as it all depends on individual taste buds. I hope this family recipe will kick start. Place the duck in the wok/pan, breast side up. The duck should be fully submerged in the liquid. Bring the liquid to a simmer. Cover with a lid and simmer for 1 1/2 - 2 hours, until the duck is thoroughly cooked and tender. Meanwhile, prepare the chilli dipping sauce. Finely chopped the chillies and garlic in a food processor. In a bowl, mix.

Wild Things SPKSD5 Swan and Duck Food - 5 Kg. 5 out of 5 stars (38) Total ratings 38, 100% agree - Would recommend. £15.47 New. Dengie Fresh Bed for Chickens - 100 L. 5 out of 5 stars (35) Total ratings 35, 100% agree - Would recommend. £21.73 New. Green Net 5m X 2m 50 Mm Mesh Cricket Tennis Peas Beans Garden. 5 out of 5 stars (29) Total ratings 29, 100% agree - Would recommend. £8.50 New. Ducklings and adolescent ducks: Young ducklings grow very quickly and need food that is high in protein and calories. For the first 3 weeks of life, feed a starter diet that is 18-20 per cent protein. Make sure the pellets are small enough for ducklings to eat (about 1/8). From the fourth through the 13th week, switch to a maintenance diet with 14 per cent protein. After the 14th week. Ark of Taste Products Cayuga Duck More Information: Slow Food USA Map of Growers Find Growers by State: According to local lore, the Cayuga Duck is a breed developed from a pair of wild ducks that a miller caught on his mill pond in 1809. The miller was reported to have pinioned the birds' wings so they could not fly away and they promptly settled into life on his pond in Duchess County. Ark Creature IDs List. A list of all Ark creature IDs including those for dinosaurs, animals and other entities. Creature IDs in this list apply to all Ark: Survival Evolved versions, including PC, XBOX and PS4. Click the copy button to copy the admin spawn command for a creature to your clipboard Ark Society Crate with Nitroglycerin Bag of Gunpowder Fire Extinguisher Flash Grenade Propane Flask Poison. Firearm. Ammo. Navigation . Starting Location. Exit Location. Agency Pickup. Stairwell. Passage. Ways Up/Down. Ledge. Foliage. Area. Ghost Crate. Ghost Mode Entrance Copy Disguise Regions. When copying, any existing target disguise regions will be deleted before copying. Source.

But if you decide to raise ducks, then you have to build them a proper home. However, that doesn't mean that it can't be both functional and creative. So if you need ideas on how duck house plans should look like or tutorials on how to build a duck house, then you've come to the right place. I am going to bring you 37 duck house plans. Our Small Livestock Ark has been designed to meet the needs of anyone who needs to house just a few moderate sized animals in comfort. We keep some of our own breeding trios of geese in them, but they are equally suitable for pygmy goats, ducks or non-perching breeds of chicken, for example.While this ark is small, it is still robust. The front, back and base are all made from 9mm thick panels.

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  1. 10 Mistakes Everyone Makes While Playing ARK: Survival Evolved. There are a ton of things to see and do in Ark: Survival Evolved. Here's a look at some of the mistakes that players make when they.
  2. The duck egg really is incredible! Food for the ducks. Ducks eat a lot and they are messy at best, though they are also super cute to watch as they dig tiny holes in the mud. They cannot swallow food without water, so make sure they always have access to those two essential items at the same time. Older ducks love to indulge in greens, so if your garden is producing, save a nibble for them.
  3. utes. Drain and cut them into pieces and add them into the pot. Lightly crush the pickled plums and add them into the pot. Wash and cut each tomato into 4 wedges and add.
  4. e is the best or the most authentic as it all depends on individual taste buds. I hope this family recipe will kick start reader Pinterest. Today. Explore. Log in. Sign up. Explore • Food And Drink.
  5. Abby Mauwong hand-feeds Minnie the duck, who was nursing a leg injury, her breakfast July 15, 2020. (Patrick Lantrip/Daily Memphian) Anna Mauwong playfully puts her hat on her horse Annie while getting ready to go on a ride July 15, 2020. (Patrick Lantrip/Daily Memphian) Kevin Flannary and Anna Mauwong tend to the beehives at ARK Farms July 22.

Chicken Feeder / Poultry / Duck/Hen Food. £20.00 + P&P. Picture Information. Image not available. Mouse over to zoom-Click to enlarge. Move over photo to zoom . X. Have one to sell?. The salted vegetable duck soup, or 'kiam chye ark' as it is known in Hokkien, I am sharing today is my family's Hokkien-style recipe. The Teochews and Nyonyas also have their own versions. During Chinese New Year reunion dinners, this is definitely one dish that can't be missed out! Contrary to what you may think, this dish is not at all complicated and I'm confident you can whip up. Dec 6, 2018 - INTRODUCTION There are many many recipes of Teochew style braised ducks.. and every household will claim that his or her recipe is the best..However, I dare not to claim that mine is the best or the most authentic as it all depends on individual taste buds. I hope this family recipe will kick start reade

Ark Wildlife Limited is a national mail order business supplying a full range wild bird, garden wildlife and waterfowl feeds. The Ark® food range is supported by a comprehensive selection of over 350 garden wildlife accessories. The company, which is based in Hitchin, Herts, was established in 1991 and has 18 years experience in the garden. Recipe - Teochew Braised Duck (Lor Ark) Boneless duck with chilli sauce: The Teochew braised duck is a tasty and delicious dish served traditionally on special occasions like Christmas or Chinese New Year. I grew up in Singapore helping my mother raised ducks for food. It takes about 6 months for a duckling to mature. These are happy free ranging ducks. They got to enjoy the world for 6 months.

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Beautifully nestled between the White River and Taylor Bay, White Oaks Duck Woods is the premier location in the United States (and perhaps even in the world) for duck hunting. Hundreds of acres of mature timber, which can be controllably flooded, provide ideal environmental conditions for ducks, including multiple rest areas and 150 acres of food plots Best Dining in Copenhagen, Zealand: See 275,871 Tripadvisor traveler reviews of 2,809 Copenhagen restaurants and search by cuisine, price, location, and more Clean and cut duck into pieces. Wash and drain. Wash mustard greens, drain and cut into 4cm lengths. Bring to a boil three litres of water. Add mustard greens and simmer on low fire for 15 minutes. Add duck, peppercorns, sour plums, nutmeg, chillies and kei chee. Simmer for an hour. Adjust taste with salt and tamarind slices if necessary Duck bobs for food in the water at Westlake Park, Los Angeles - UCLA Library Digital Collections Welcome to Digital Collections (Beta)! This site is growing each week as we migrate content from our Legacy Site

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  1. Jun 6, 2020 - Explore Holly Thompson's board ARK recipes on Pinterest. See more ideas about recipes, food, cooking recipes
  2. We have a range of different breeds of duck at Noah's Ark including: the Indian Runner, Call, Aylesbury and Muscovy cross. You may also see some wild Mallard ducks who like to come and go as they please! Diet . Ducks are omnivores. They have a broad diet and eat a range of foods including fish, grass, fruit and seeds. Size Fact. The average duck weighs between 1-2 Kg. Food Fact. Ducks can dive.
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  4. I recall going on a Duck tour as a youngster in the 1960s when my family came to Hot Springs on vacation. Riding on those vehicles was the highlight of my time then, and I have to say, as an old man, I still thoroughly enjoyed the ride and the extremely corny narration. If you're looking for a serious guided tour, look elsewhere. But.
  5. The Ark Society is the sixth and final mission in HITMAN™ 2. 1 Objectives 2 Description 3 Mission Briefing 4 Mission Stories 5 Intelligence 6 Challenges 6.1 Removed Challenges 7 Mastery 8 Disguises 9 Weapons 10 Gallery 11 Escalation Contracts 12 Target Lockdown 13 Trivia Zoe Washington Sophia..

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  • Together with Slow Food International's Ark experts in Italy, they are adding new Ark 'boarders' regularly, as candidates are suggested by our convivia and others who care about foods worth protecting. All the current items on the Ark of Taste in Scotland. And where to find them. Bloody Ploughman. It was first recorded in 1883 and originates from the Carse of Gowrie, near Dundee. A.
  • COVID update: Duck House has updated their hours, takeout & delivery options. 970 reviews of Duck House This place was full on a wednesday night. Their speciality is Peking Duck and it says so on their business card: The best peking duck in town. They may very well be right. It's damn good. Golden crisp skin, tender and juicy meat along with perfectly shredded scallions and that killer.
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  • The duck soup with pickled (or salted) mustard leaves or kiam chye used to be common fare in Singapore. Thirty years ago, it was quite easy to tuck into this hearty bowl of kiam chye ark soup at many eating places. Today, this duck soup with pickled mustard leaves is considered a gourmet dish

Therizinosaur - Official ARK: Survival Evolved Wik

Ducks Mean Big Business. Hunters enjoy Wildlife Farms almost as much as the ducks do. Waterfowl head to Wildlife Farms every fall and hang out near the White River or on one of the many Wildlife lakes. Hunters pay $550 a day to bag a duck or goose. That price includes the guided hunt, a heated blind for duck hunting, plus lodging and meals Details about vintage Short Call Almyra Ark wooden duck call See original listing. vintage Short Call Almyra Ark wooden duck call : Condition: Used some surface wear to the emblem. Blows great Ended: Apr 15, 2021. Winning bid: US $208.00 [ 23 bids] Shipping: $7.95 Expedited Shipping | See details . Item location: Poplar Grove, Arkansas, United States. Seller: jskfuller | Seller's other. ARK: Survival Evolved update 2.53 has just gone live, with more Genesis Chronicles 2 content and some highly anticipated flyer tweaks. Get the full details here Teochew Braised Duck aka Lor Ark Although my first attempt of cooking the Teochew braised duck cannot be compared to the famous Ah Seng Duck Rice at Serangoon Garden Way in Singapore, the component was there, but the duck available in Sydney is not as chewy and has a different texture to those ducks my grandmother raised in her kampong when I was a child. Yesterday, I had to prepare some food.

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  • The Mandarin duck that's taking over the internet is back in New York City. Visitors to Central Park were unable to locate the duck earlier this week. But on Thursday morning, lucky bystanders caught a glimpse of the rare, multi-colored bird. The bird immediately caused a social media frenzy when it first appeared at the Central Park Pond on.
  • Duck bobs for food in the water at Westlake Park, Los Angeles Contributor University of California, Los Angeles. Library. Dept. of Special Collections (repository) Contributing Institution UCLA, Library Special Collections, Charles E. Young Research Library Collection Los Angeles Daily News Negatives Rights Information copyrighte
  • Key Words ARK's Cathie Wood keeps cool over dismal May start — and reveals Archegos's Hwang seeded ETF launches Last Updated: May 9, 2021 at 1:06 p.m. ET First Published: May 7, 2021 at 5:19.
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  • Apr 26, 2020 - Andrew Wong's Peking duck recipe is not a dish to commit to lightly. But after years of research across the world, that crispy, glassy skin is more than worth it if you have the patienc

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Arkansas duck hunting proves to be the most dominate and popular sport for the sportsman. Hunting waterfowl in Arkansas is known to attract hunters from all over the world. Arkansas duck hunting guides can be used for the extreme experience if needed, but the state does offer many public regions to hunt. This is due to the abundance of water, which is used for crops, rice fields, and to. VALUE AS DUCK FOOD. Like some of the other duck foods mentioned in this circular, chufas are at present known to be of only local importance. Those best ac- quainted with conditions at Big Lake, Ark., one of the most famous hunting grounds of the South, believe that the chufa, or nut grass, as it is there called, is the principal element in rendering that lake so attractive to waterfowl. Ducks are rather clumsy on land, with a slow waddle. But they are in their element in water and this is where they mainly look for food, which they do by straining water through the beak. Blue ducks will eat almost anything. Adopters. Become adopter. Stiftelsen Nordens Ark Åby säteri 456 93 Hunnebostrand +46 (0) 523-795 90 [email protected] VAT: SE854600619101 . Some of our partners: Visit.

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Calling all Razorbacks fans - The official Arkansas Razorbacks Gameday application has a new look and feel for the 2017-18 season! Whether you're on campus or on the go, this app is a must-have for ALL Razorbacks fans Our duck is first dry-brined in our unique blend of Asian herbs and spices. We proceed to slow-cook it over a period of 2 hours (or longer) to develop its wonderful flavours, then chop it to down to manageable pieces for your convenience. To sweeten the deal, we're throwing in a braised egg, along with chilli for you to enjoy! Warning - dangerously addictive. Please state your choice of.

Cooked Meat ID, GFI Code & Spawn Commands Ark ID

Wolfsblut - getreidefrei und 100% natürlich . Die Zusammensetzungen aller Trockenfutter, Nassfutter und Snacks verbinden die Nahrung des Wolfs mit den neuesten Erkenntnissen über die richtige Ernährung von Hunden Abstract. Based on the methods outlined in Determining the Ark Kinds (Lightner et al. 2011), information on the class Mammalia was evaluated in an attempt to get a realistic estimate of what mammalian kinds would have been represented on the Ark. Examining information on extant species (those alive today), it was estimated that they represent 137 created kinds


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Pantry essentials

Chilli peppers are indispensable to Malaysian kitchens, and both fresh and dried chilies are used. Chillies come in several sizes, shapes and even colours. As a general rule, two type of chilli cultivars are the most commonly available: the bird’s eye chili (cili padi), although small in size are extremely pungent and very hot, and longer varieties which tend to be a lot milder. Green chillies are more peppery in taste while red chillies, green chillies which have been left to ripen, have a slightly sweeter heat. If a milder flavour is preferred, the seeds and membranes would be removed from the chili pods before it is cut, or the chillies would be left whole and removed prior to serving. Some common uses include but are not limited to grinding the chillies into a paste or sambal, chopping fresh chillies as a condiment or garnish, and pickling whole or cut chillies.

Belacan is essential to Malaysian cooking. It is a type of shrimp paste which is pressed into a block and sun-dried. In its raw form it has a very pungent, and some would say awful, smell. Once cooked however, the shrimp paste’s aroma and flavour mellows out and contributes an inimitable depth of flavour to any dish. To prepare belacan for use, a typical method involves wrapping a small amount of the shrimp paste block in foil, which is then roasted over a flame or placed into a pre-heated oven. Belacan is most commonly pounded or blended with local chilli peppers, shallots and lime juice to make the most popular and ubiquitous relish in Malaysia, sambal belacan. Belacan is also crumbled into a ground spice paste called rempah, which will usually include garlic, ginger, onions or shallots, and fresh or dried chilli peppers. A rempah paste is similar in form and function to an Indian wet masala paste or Thai curry paste, and is often browned and caramelised (Malay: tumis ) to mellow the raw flavours of its component ingredients and produce a harmonised finish.

The coconut (Malay: kelapa ) is another quintessential feature of Malaysian cuisine, and virtually all parts of the plant are used for culinary purposes. The white fleshy part of the coconut endosperm is grated, shredded and used as it is dried to make desiccated coconut or toasted until dark brown and ground to make kerisik. Grated coconut flesh is also squeezed to obtain coconut milk, which is used extensively in savoury dishes and desserts throughout the country. Coconut oil is used for cooking and cosmetic purposes, and may be obtained either from processing copra (dried coconut flesh) or extracted from fresh coconuts as virgin coconut oil. Coconut water, the clear liquid found inside the cavity of each coconut, is a popular cooler in Malaysia’s hot and humid climate. Gula melaka is unrefined palm sugar produced from the sap of the coconut flower. It is the most traditional sweetener in Malaysian cooking and imbues a rich caramel-like flavour with a hint of coconut. Coconut fronds are traditionally used to wrap food, hollowed out coconut husks and shells may be used as a source of charcoal fuel for barbecued meats and traditional pastry making, and even the apical bud or growing tip of the coconut palm is a popular delicacy served in rural communities and specialist restaurants.

Soy sauce is another important ingredient. Different varieties are used: light soy sauce contributes its pleasantly salty flavour to a variety of stir-fries, marinades and steamed dishes. In some hawker establishments, freshly sliced or pickled chillies arrive immersed in light soy sauce to be used for dipping. Dark soy sauce is thicker in consistency, more intense in flavour and less salty. It is often used when a heartier flavour is desired, particularly with masak kicap (a style of braising with a blend of soy sauce varieties as the primary seasoning) dishes, and also to provide a darker shade of colour to a dish. Kicap manis, Sweetened soy sauce sometimes flavoured with star anise or garlic, is also a popular seasoning for cooking. The sweet and savoury taste of kicap manis also functions as a substitute to approximate the combination of dark soy sauce and thick caramel sauce, which is primarily used to colour and season stewed dishes.

Common herbs include lemongrass (Malay: serai ), a type of grass with a lemony aroma and flavour. Young, fresh stems are more desirable as older stems tend to acquire a woody texture: the tender white part closest to the base of the stem is thinly sliced and eaten raw in salads, or pounded with other aromatics to make a rempah. It is also used whole in boiled and simmered dishes. The pandan (screwpine) leaf is the Asian equivalent of vanilla in Western cuisine. The subtle aroma is released when the leaves are bruised by tying one or two long leaves into a knot, and used for cooking curries, rice and desserts. The leaves can also be used to wrap items like rice, chicken or fish for cooking. Pandan leaf is also available in liquid essence or powdered form to flavour and colour cakes. Turmeric (Malay: kunyit ) is a rhizome popular for its flavour as well as colouring properties. The leaves and flowers of the turmeric plant are also used in cooking or eaten raw.

Tofu products, specifically fried tofu, are widely used as cooking ingredients and as side accompaniments. While fried tofu can be bland in flavour on their own, its main contribution is texture and especially with tofu puffs, the ability to soak up the flavour of whatever they are cooked in. Fried tofu products are found as a versatile component ingredient for dishes like stir fried noodles, rojak (fruit and vegetable salad), noodle soups, and stews. A popular way of serving fried tofu on its own is a salad with bean sprouts, shredded cucumber and spring onions, covered in a thick sweet and spicy dressing and dusted with roasted ground peanuts. Fried tofu may also be stuffed with a mixture of ground meat or shredded vegetables.

Dried seafood products contribute a savoury depth of flavour to some Malaysian dishes. Small dried anchovies, known as ikan bilis, are very popular. It acquires a very crispy texture when deep-fried, and is served as an accompaniments or prepared as a sambal relish in this capacity. Ikan bilis is also boiled to make fish stock in fact, instant ikan bilis stock granules are a popular seasoning in modern kitchens. Dried shrimp and salted dried fish are also used in various ways.

Other essential seasoning and garnishes include tamarind (Malay: asam jawa ), specifically the paste-like pulp extracted from the fruit pod which contributes a tart flavour to many dishes. Candlenuts (Malay: buah keras ) are similar in appearance to macadamia nuts, being round, cream coloured and have a high oil content. Candlenuts are normally ground to thicken sauces. Lup cheong is a type of dried Chinese sausage made from pork meat and spices. Mainly used by the Malaysian Chinese community, these sweet sausages are usually sliced very thinly and added for additional flavour and texture.

Rice (Malay: nasi ) was and still is the most important staple food in Malaysia. According to Indonesian-born food and cookery writer Sri Owen, there is some evidence for rice cultivation found in the state of Sarawak in Malaysian Borneo dated 2300 BC, and about 900 years of history for the state of Kelantan in West Malaysia. Today Malaysia produces about seventy percent of the amount of rice it needs to support itself, and the rest is imported. [3] This is a matter of policy as the government believes that national resources can be used more profitably instead of attempting to achieve self-sufficiency with rice production the prevalent attitude is that revenue generated from its industries enables the country to import up to half the rice it needs. [4] Nevertheless, the government is fully committed and involved in planning, allocating resources and managing subsidies for the rice farming industry. The state of Kedah is considered the “rice bowl” [5] [6] (Malay: jelapang padi ) of the country, accounting for about half of Malaysia’s total production of rice.

Plain steamed white rice, to be served with side dishes of meat or vegetables, is typically prepared with an electric rice cooker at home. Some households and food establishments prefer to cook rice on a stove top with the absorption method or the rapid-boil method. Compressed rice, called nasi himpit, is another method of preparing and cooking rice: the rice is wrapped with fronds or leaves and compressed into the form of a cylinder, which is then cooked by boiling. The rice would compress and merge during the cooking process. Compressed rice is usually eaten cold with some sort of gravy, although it may be served warm in a broth or soup. A notable variant of compressed rice prepared by the Bugis community is burasak: rice is precooked with coconut milk before it is wrapped in banana leaves and steamed until fully cooked.

Besides the ubiquitous white rice, there are different types of locally grown and imported rice available in the market, and each type has a specific cooking method to bring out optimal results. [7] Glutinous rice (Malay: pulut ) is one example: because of its low amylose and high amylopectin content which results in a sticky texture after cooking, glutinous rice is prepared with different measurements and techniques and is not a suitable substitute for normal rice or vice versa. It is typically used for making snacks and desserts, but glutinous rice is also prepared as a savoury staple by indigenous peoples like the Orang Asli as well as the Dayak people of Borneo. Lemang is glutinous rice roasted in a hollowed bamboo tube, and is prepared for festive occasions like Ari Gawai, Hari Raya Aidilfitri, and Hari Raya Aidiladha.

Nasi lemak

A popular dish based on rice in Malaysia is nasi lemak, rice steamed with coconut milk and pandan leaves to give it a rich fragrance. Of Malay origin, nasi lemak is frequently referred to as the national dish. [8] It is customarily served with ikan bilis, peanuts, sliced cucumber, hard boiled eggs and sambal. Although it is often considered a breakfast dish, because of the versatility of nasi lemak in being able to be served in a variety of ways, it is commonly eaten at any time of the day. For a more substantial meal, nasi lemak may be served with fried chicken, curries, or a spicy meat stew called rendang.

Congee

Congee is a type of rice porridge or gruel popular among Malaysia’s ethnic communities. It is eaten primarily as a breakfast food or late supper. It is also considered particularly suitable for the sick as a mild, easily digestible food. [9] Congee is called bubur in Malay 粥 written in Chinese, pronounced as zhou in Mandarin Chinese and juk in Cantonese and kanji (கஞ்சி) in Tamil. It may be served plain with little embellishment, or cooked with ingredients like fish slices, seafood, chicken, beef, pork, vegetables, and even spices. The importance and popularity of congee in the Malaysian diet is such that bubur ayam or chicken congee is a permanent fixture on the menu of Malaysian McDonald’s restaurants. [10]

Noodles

Noodles are another popular staple, particularly in Malaysian Chinese cuisine, but used by other groups as well. Noodles such as bi hoon (米粉, Hokkien: bí-hún, Malay: bihun rice vermicelli), kuay teow (粿條, Hokkien: kóe-tiâu) or ho fun (河粉, Cantonese: ho4 fan2 flat rice noodles), mee (麵 or 面, Hokkien: mī, Malay: mi yellow noodles), mee suah (麵線 or 面线, Hokkien: mī-sòaⁿ wheat vermicelli), yee meen (伊麵 or 伊面, Cantonese: ji1 min6 golden wheat noodles), dongfen(冬粉, Hokkien: tang-hún, Cantonese: dung1 fan2 cellophane noodles), Lao Shu Fen (老鼠粉, Cantonese: lou5 syu2 fan2 silver needle noodles), and others provide an alternative source of carbohydrate to a serving of rice that accompanies every meal.

Stir-fried noodle dishes (Malay: mee goreng ) are ubiquitous throughout Malaysia’s cities, towns and villages, with numerous localized variants prepared by various ethnic communities according to their culinary traditions and preferences.


Contents

The Malaysian cuisine is a mixture of cooking cultures from India, China, the Middle East, Indonesia, and several European countries. [3] This diverse culinary culture stems from Malaysia's diverse culture and colonial past. [4] The cuisine was developed as a melange between local and foreign. In the 15th century, the region now known as Malaysia became an important passageway for maritime trade. Passing through Malaysia were Arab traders who brought spices from the Middle East, as well as Portuguese, Dutch, and English colonizers and traders who introduced food staples such as peanuts, pineapples, avocado, tomato, squash and pumpkin. [5] Later, under British rule, the colonizers brought many Chinese and Indian laborers [6] who contributed to the diversity of tastes in Malaysian cuisine. [7]

Pantry essentials Edit

Chilli peppers are indispensable in Malaysian kitchens, and both fresh and dried forms are used. Chillies come in several sizes, shapes and colours. As a general rule, two type of chilli cultivars are the most commonly available: the bird's eye chilli (cili padi code: msa promoted to code: ms ), which although small in size are extremely pungent and very hot and longer varieties, which tend to be much milder. Green chillies are more peppery in taste, while red chillies, green chillies which have been left to ripen, have a slightly sweeter heat. If a milder flavour is preferred, the seeds and membranes are removed from the chilli pods before they are cut, or the chillies are left whole and removed prior to serving. Some common uses include grinding the chillies into a paste or sambal chopping fresh chillies as a condiment or garnish and pickling whole or cut chillies.

Belacan code: msa promoted to code: ms is essential to Malaysian cooking. It is a type of shrimp paste which is pressed into a block and sun-dried. In its raw form it has a pungent smell. Once cooked, the aroma and flavour mellow and contribute a depth of flavour to the dish. [8] To prepare belacan code: msa promoted to code: ms for use, one typically wraps a small amount in foil, which is then roasted over a flame or placed into a preheated oven. Belacan code: msa promoted to code: ms is most commonly pounded or blended with local chilli peppers, shallots and lime juice to make the most popular and ubiquitous relish in Malaysia, sambal belacan code: msa promoted to code: ms . Belacan code: msa promoted to code: ms is also crumbled into a ground spice paste called rempah code: msa promoted to code: ms , which usually includes garlic, ginger, onions or shallots, and fresh or dried chilli peppers. A rempah code: msa promoted to code: ms paste is similar in form and function to an Indian wet masala paste or Thai curry paste, and is often browned and caramelised (Malay: tumis) to mellow the raw flavours of its component ingredients and produce a harmonised finish.

The coconut (Malay: kelapa) is another quintessential feature of Malaysian cuisine, and virtually all parts of the plant are used for culinary purposes. The white fleshy part of the coconut endosperm may be grated, shredded and used as is dried to make desiccated coconut or toasted until dark brown and ground to make kerisik. Grated coconut flesh is also squeezed to make coconut milk, which is used extensively in savoury dishes and desserts throughout the country. Coconut oil is used for cooking and cosmetic purposes, and may be either obtained by processing copra (dried coconut flesh) or extracted from fresh coconuts as virgin coconut oil. Coconut water, the clear liquid found inside the cavity of each coconut, is a popular cooler in Malaysia's hot and humid climate. Gula melaka code: msa promoted to code: ms is unrefined palm sugar produced from the sap of the coconut flower. It is the most traditional sweetener in Malaysian cooking and imbues a rich caramel-like flavour with a hint of coconut. Coconut fronds are traditionally used to wrap food, hollowed out coconut husks and shells may be used as a source of charcoal fuel for barbecued meats and traditional pastry making, and even the apical bud or growing tip of the coconut palm is a popular delicacy served in rural communities and specialty restaurants.

Soy sauce of different varieties is another important ingredient. Light soy sauce contributes its pleasantly salty flavour to a variety of stir-fries, marinades and steamed dishes. In some hawker establishments, freshly sliced or pickled chillies arrive immersed in light soy sauce to be used for dipping. Dark soy sauce is thicker, more intense in flavour and less salty. It is often used when a heartier flavour is desired, particularly with masak kicap code: msa promoted to code: ms (a style of braising with a blend of soy sauce varieties) dishes, and also to darken the color of a dish. Kicap manis, sweetened soy sauce sometimes flavoured with star anise or garlic, is also a popular seasoning for cooking. The sweet and savoury taste of kicap manis code: msa promoted to code: ms also functions as a substitute to approximate the combination of dark soy sauce and thick caramel sauce, which is primarily used to colour and season stewed dishes.

Common herbs include lemongrass (Malay: serai), a type of grass with a lemony aroma and flavour. Young, fresh stems are more desirable as older stems tend to acquire a woody texture. The tender white part closest to the base of the stem is thinly sliced and eaten raw in salads, or pounded with other aromatics to make a rempah code: msa promoted to code: ms . It is also used whole in boiled and simmered dishes. The pandan (screwpine) leaf is the Asian equivalent of vanilla in Western cuisine. Its subtle aroma is released when the leaves are bruised by tying one or two long leaves into a knot, and used for cooking curries, rice and desserts. The leaves can also be used to wrap items like rice, chicken or fish for cooking. Pandan leaf is also available in liquid essence or powdered form to flavour and colour cakes. Turmeric (Malay: kunyit) is a rhizome popular for its flavour as well as colouring properties. The leaves and flowers of the turmeric plant are also used in cooking or eaten raw.

Tofu products, specifically fried tofu, are widely used as cooking ingredients and as side accompaniments. While fried tofu can be bland in flavour on its own, its main contribution is texture and especially with tofu puffs, the ability to soak up the flavour of whatever they are cooked in. Fried tofu products are found as a versatile component ingredient for dishes like stir fried noodles, rojak (fruit and vegetable salad), noodle soups, and stews. A popular way of serving fried tofu on its own is a salad with bean sprouts, shredded cucumber and spring onions, covered in a thick sweet and spicy dressing and dusted with roasted ground peanuts. Fried tofu may also be stuffed with a mixture of ground meat or shredded vegetables.

Dried seafood products contribute a savoury depth of flavour to some Malaysian dishes. Small dried anchovies, known as ikan bilis code: msa promoted to code: ms , are very popular. It acquires a crispy texture when deep-fried, and is served as an accompaniment or prepared as a sambal code: msa promoted to code: ms relish in this capacity. Ikan bilis code: msa promoted to code: ms is also boiled to make fish stock in fact, instant ikan bilis code: msa promoted to code: ms stock granules are a popular seasoning in modern kitchens. Dried shrimp and salted dried fish are also used in various ways.

Other essential seasoning and garnishes include tamarind (Malay: asam jawa), specifically the paste-like pulp extracted from the fruit pod which contributes a tart flavour to many dishes. Candlenuts (Malay: buah keras) are similar in appearance to macadamia nuts, being round, cream-coloured and having a high oil content. Candlenuts are normally ground to thicken sauces. Lup cheong code: msa promoted to code: ms is a type of dried Chinese sausage made from pork and spices. Mainly used by the Malaysian Chinese community, these sweet sausages are usually sliced very thinly and added for additional flavour and texture. Recent studies have shown that there are 62 commonly consumed Malaysian foods that include biogenic amines.

Rice Edit

Rice (Malay: nasi) is the most important staple food in Malaysia. According to Indonesian-born food and cookery writer Sri Owen, there is some evidence for rice cultivation found in the state of Sarawak in Malaysian Borneo dated 2300 BC, and about 900 years of history for the state of Kelantan in West Malaysia. Today Malaysia produces about seventy percent of the amount of rice it needs to support itself and the rest is imported. [9] This is a matter of policy as the government believes that national resources can be used more profitably instead of attempting to achieve self-sufficiency with rice production the prevalent attitude is that revenue generated from its industries enables the country to import up to half the rice it needs. [10] Nevertheless, the government is fully committed and involved in planning, allocating resources and managing subsidies for the rice farming industry. The state of Kedah is considered the "rice bowl" [11] [12] (Malay: jelapang padi) of the country, accounting for about half of Malaysia's total production of rice.

Plain steamed white rice, to be served with side dishes of meat or vegetables, is typically prepared with an electric rice cooker at home. Some households and food establishments prefer to cook rice on a stove top with the absorption method or the rapid-boil method. Compressed rice, called nasi himpit, is another method of preparing and cooking rice: the rice is wrapped with fronds or leaves and compressed into the form of a cylinder, which is then cooked by boiling. The rice would compress and merge during the cooking process. Compressed rice is usually eaten cold with some sort of gravy, although it may be served warm in a broth or soup. A notable variant of compressed rice prepared by the Bugis community is burasak: rice is precooked with coconut milk before it is wrapped in banana leaves and steamed until fully cooked.

Besides the ubiquitous white rice, there are different types of locally grown and imported rice available in the market, and each type has a specific cooking method to bring out optimal results. [13] Glutinous rice (Malay: pulut) is one example: because of its low amylose and high amylopectin content which results in a sticky texture after cooking, glutinous rice is prepared with different measurements and techniques and is not suitably interchangeable with regular rice. It is typically used for making snacks and desserts, but glutinous rice is also prepared as a savoury staple by indigenous peoples like the Orang Asli as well as the Dayak people of Borneo. Lemang is glutinous rice roasted in a hollowed bamboo tube, and is prepared for festive occasions like Ari Gawai, Hari Raya Aidilfitri, and Hari Raya Aidiladha. [14]

Nasi lemak Edit

A popular dish based on rice in Malaysia is nasi lemak code: msa promoted to code: ms , rice steamed with coconut milk and pandan leaves to give it a rich fragrance. Of Malay origin, nasi lemak code: msa promoted to code: ms is very popular and frequently referred to as the national dish. [15] It is customarily served with ikan bilis code: msa promoted to code: ms or fried anchovies, peanuts, sliced cucumber, hard-boiled eggs and sambal. Although it is often considered a breakfast dish, it is served in a variety of ways and commonly eaten at any time of day due to its versatility. For a more substantial meal, nasi lemak code: msa promoted to code: ms may be served with fried chicken, curries, or a spicy meat stew called rendang.

Congee Edit

Congee is a type of rice porridge or gruel popular among Malaysia's ethnic communities. It is eaten primarily as a breakfast food or late supper. It is also considered particularly suitable for the sick as a mild, easily digestible food. [16] Congee is called bubur code: msa promoted to code: ms in Malay 粥 written in Chinese, pronounced as zhou in Mandarin Chinese and juk in Cantonese and kanji (கஞ்சி) in Tamil. It may be served plain with little embellishment, or cooked with ingredients like fish slices, seafood, chicken, beef, pork, vegetables, and spices. The importance and popularity of congee in the Malaysian diet is such that bubur ayam or chicken congee is a permanent fixture on the menu of Malaysian McDonald's restaurants. [17]

Noodles Edit

Noodles are another popular staple, particularly in Malaysian Chinese cuisine, but used by other groups as well. Noodles such as bi hoon (米粉, Hokkien: bí-hún, Malay: bihun code: msa promoted to code: ms rice vermicelli), kuay teow (粿條, Hokkien: kóe-tiâu) or ho fun (河粉, Cantonese: ho4 fan2 flat rice noodles), mee (麵 or 面, Hokkien: mī, Malay: mi code: msa promoted to code: ms yellow noodles), mee suah (麵線 or 面线, Hokkien: mī-sòaⁿ wheat vermicelli), yee meen (伊麵 or 伊面, Cantonese: ji1 min6 golden wheat noodles), dongfen (冬粉, Hokkien: tang-hún, Cantonese: dung1 fan2 cellophane noodles), Lao Shu Fen (老鼠粉, Cantonese: lou5 syu2 fan2 silver needle noodles), and others provide an alternative source of carbohydrate to a serving of rice that accompanies every meal. Stir-fried noodle dishes (Malay: mee goreng) are ubiquitous throughout Malaysia's cities, towns and villages, with numerous localised variants prepared by various ethnic communities according to their culinary traditions and preferences.


Cuisines of Malaysia

Malay cuisine

For a traditional Malay meal, rice is considered the centerpiece of a meal, with everything else considered as an accompaniment, relish or side for the rice. Malay cuisine bears many similarities to Indonesian cuisine, in particular some of the regional traditions from Sumatra. It has also been influenced by Chinese, Indian, Thai and many other cultures throughout history, producing a distinct cuisine of their own. Some regional Malay dishes, such as arisa and kacang pool, are examples of influence from Arab cuisine due to longstanding historical and religious ties. Many Malay dishes revolve around a rempah, which is usually sauteed in oil (tumis) to draw out flavours to form the base of a dish. A dipping relish called sambal is an essential accompaniment for most Malay dishes.

  • Air bandung - a cold milk drink flavoured with rose cordial syrup, giving it a pink colour. Despite the name, there is no connection to the city of Bandung in Indonesia. Bandung within this context refers to anything that comes in pairs or is mixed from many ingredients.
  • Asam pedas - a sour and spicy stew of meat, with the core ingredients being tamarind and chili. Depending on region, tomatoes, lady's fingers, shredded torch ginger bud and Vietnamese coriander (Malay: daun kesum) may also be added. Usually cooked with fish like mackerel or stingray, although some recipes use chicken and even oxtail.
  • Ayam goreng - a generic term for deep fried chicken, typically marinated in a base of turmeric and other seasonings prior to cooking.
  • Ayam masak merah - this dish literally means red-cooked chicken in English. Pieces of chicken are first fried to a golden brown then slowly braised in a spicy tomato sauce. Peas are sometimes added to the dish, and it is garnished with shredded kaffir lime leaves as well as coriander. It is often paired with nasi tomato - rice cooked with tomato sauce or paste, milk, dried spices, and a sauteed rempah base of garlic, onions, ginger.
  • Ayam percik - also known as ayam golek in some states, ayam percik is grilled marinated chicken basted with a spiced coconut milk gravy.
  • Bubur lambuk - a savoury rice porridge consumed during the fasting month of Ramadhan, made with a mixture of lemongrass, spices, vegetables, and chicken or beef. It is usually cooked communally at a local mosque, which is then distributed to the congregation as a meal to break the fast every evening. In the state of Terengganu, bubur lambuk is prepared with wild herbs, budu, sweet potatoes, and seafood.
  • Gulai - the Malay term for a curried stew. The main ingredients for gulai may be poultry, beef, mutton, various kinds of offals, fish and seafood, and also vegetables such as cassava leaves and green/unripe jackfruit. The gravy is usually yellowish-brown in color due to the sauteed and browned rempah which forms its base, and the addition of ground turmeric. The gravy's consistency may vary in thickness depending on the cook.

  • Ikan bakar - barbecued or char grilled fish, usually smeared with a sambal-based sauce. It may also be accompanied with air asam, a dip made from shrimp paste, onion, chillis and tamarind juice.
  • Ikan goreng - a generic term for shallow or deep fried fish, which is almost always marinated prior to cooking. There are countless recipes and variants for what is arguably the most popular and typical method of cooking fish in Malaysia.
  • Kerabu - a type of salad-like dish which can be made with any combination of cooked or uncooked fruits and vegetables, as well as the occasional meat or seafood ingredient. There are many kerabu recipes, which often have little common in preparation: kerabu taugeh is made with blanched bean sprouts and quintessentially Malay ingredients like kerisik, while preparations like kerabu mangga (shredded green mango salad) resemble a Thai-style yam salad in taste profile.
  • Keropok lekor - a speciality of the state of Terengganu and other states on the east coast of Peninsula Malaysia, keropok lekor is a savoury fritter made from a combination of batter and shredded fish. Sliced and fried just before serving, it is eaten with hot sauce.
  • Ketupat - a variant of compressed rice, wrapped in a woven palm frond pouch. As the rice boils, the grains expand to fill the pouch and the rice becomes compressed. This method of cooking gives the ketupat its characteristic form and texture. Usually eaten with rendang (a type of dry beef curry) or served as an accompaniment to satay, ketupat is also traditionally served on festive occasions such as Eid (Hari Raya Aidilfitri) as part of an open house spread.
  • Laksam or Laksang - a different variant on laksa found in the northern and northeastern states of the Peninsular. Laksam consists of thick flat rice noodle rolls in a full-bodied, rich and slightly sweet white gravy of minced fish, coconut milk and shredded aromatic herbs.
  • Masak lemak is a style of cooking which employs liberal amounts of turmeric-seasoned coconut milk. Sources of protein like chicken, seafood smoked meats and shelled molluscs, perhaps paired with fruits and vegetables such as bamboo shoots, pineapples and tapioca leaves are often cooked this way. Certain states are associated with a specific variant of this dish: for example, masak lemak cili api/padi is an iconic speciality of Negeri Sembilan.

  • Nasi dagang - rice cooked with coconut milk and fenugreek seeds, served with a fish gulai (usually tuna or ikan tongkol), fried shaved coconut, hard-boiled eggs and vegetable pickles. Nasi dagang ("trader's rice" in Malay) is a staple breakfast dish in the northeastern states of Kelantan and Terrenganu. It should not be confused with nasi lemak, as nasi lemak is often found sold side-by-side with nasi dagang for breakfast in the east coast of Peninsular Malaysia.

  • Nasi goreng - a generic term for fried rice, of which there are many, many different permutations and variations. Variants includes Nasi goreng kampung, Nasi goreng pattaya, and Nasi paprik.
  • Nasi tumpang - rice packed in a cone-shaped banana leaf. A pack of nasi tumpang consists of an omelette, meat floss, chicken or shrimp curry and sweet gravy. It is traditionally served as a meal of convenience for travelers on the road.
  • Nasi ulam - rice salad tossed with a variety of thinly shredded herbs and greens (daun kaduk, daun cekur, daun kesum and so on) as well as pounded dried shrimp, kerisik and chopped shallots. A variant popular in the eastern coast states of Peninsular Malaysia is called nasi kerabu, which is blue-coloured rice served with various herbs, dried fish or fried chicken, crackers, pickles and vegetables.
  • Rendang - a spicy meat and coconut milk stew originating from the Minangkabau people of Indonesia, many of whom have settled in the state of Negeri Sembilan. Buffalo meat is the most traditional choice for this dish, but beef and chicken are by far more commonly used for rendang in restaurants and home cooking. The common addition of kerisik is another distinctively Malaysian touch. Rendang is traditionally prepared by the Malay community during festive occasions, served with ketupat or nasi minyak.

  • Roti jala - The name is derived from the Malay words roti (bread) and jala (net). A special ladle with a five-hole perforation used to form its lacy pattern. Roti jala is usually eaten as an accompaniment to a curried dish, or served as dessert with a sweet dipping sauce.
  • Roti john - a spiced meat omelette sandwich, popularly eaten for breakfast or as a snack.

  • Sambal - the term sambal not only refers to a relish-like sauce made from chili peppers pounded together with secondary ingredients like belacan and thinned with calamansi lime juice, it also refer to a cooking style where meat, seafood, and vegetables like brinjal (Malay: sambal terung ) and stink bean (Malay: sambal petai ) are braised in a spicy sambal-based sauce.
  • Satay- one of Malaysia's most popular foods, Satay (written as sate in Malay) is made from marinated beef and chicken pieces skewered with wooden sticks and cooked on a charcoal grill. It is typically served with compressed rice cut onions, cucumber, and a spiced peanut gravy for dipping. The town of Kajang in Selangor is famous for its satay Sate Kajang is a term for a style of sate where the meat chunks are bigger than that of a typical satay, and the sweet peanut sauce is served along with a portion of fried chilli paste.
  • Serunding - spiced meat floss. Serunding may also refer to any dish where the primary meat or vegetable ingredient is shredded and pulled into thin strands. In Indonesia, this term strictly refers to a dry-toasted grated coconut mix instead.
  • Sup kambing - a hearty mutton soup slow simmered with aromatic herbs and spices, and garnished with fried shallots, fresh cilantro and a wedge of calamansi lime. Variants include soups cooked with beef (Malay: daging ), beef ribs (Malay: tulang ), or oxtail (Malay: buntut/ekor ), all seasoned with the same herbs and spices.
  • Tempoyak - fermented durian, traditionally stored in an urn. Tempoyak may be eaten as relish, or it can be added to braised dishes and stews as a primary flavouring (masak tempoyak).

Javanese-influenced cuisine

There are certain Malaysian dishes with overt Javanese influences or are direct adaptations from Javanese cuisine, brought to Malaysia by Javanese immigrants who have been assimilated or integrated into the wider Malay community to various degrees. Javanese cuisine is highly distinct from mainstream Malay cooking, being noted for its simplicity and sweeter flavours, as opposed to mainstream Malay cuisine which is predominantly based on the complex and spicy regional cuisines of Sumatra. A popular way of serving Javanese-influenced food in the southern part of Peninsular Malaysia is termed nasi ambang, which consists of shared platters of white rice served with accompaniments like chicken cooked in soy sauce or curried gravy, stir fried noodles, sambal goreng, fried shredded coconut pieces, egg, vegetables and so on. .


Contents

The Malaysian cuisine is a mixture of cooking cultures from India, China, the Middle East, Indonesia, and several European countries. Α] This diverse culinary culture stems from Malaysia's diverse culture and colonial past. Β] The cuisine was developed as a melange between local and foreign. In the 15th century, the region now known as Malaysia became an important passageway for maritime trade. Passing through Malaysia were Arab traders who brought spices from the Middle East, as well as Portuguese, Dutch, and English colonizers and traders who introduced food staples such as peanuts, pineapples, avocado, tomato, squash and pumpkin. Γ] Later, under British rule, the colonizers brought many Chinese and Indian laborers Δ] who contributed to the diversity of tastes in Malaysian cuisine. Ε]


Malaysia, the soul of Asia.

Malaysia certainly has many colors which make it appear lively and vibrant, each time you take a look. Perhaps it is the only place in the world with numerous religious holidays on its calendar. For the maximum religious festivals, it observes an open-door policy in which people invite friends and relatives regardless of their faith. The multi-ethnic and multi-religious facets of the country are best seen in the celebration of various festivals that are observed with whole-hearted festivities. Malaysian festivals are generally celebrated nationwide, but sometimes, they are observed at state level. Nearly all religious festivals are celebrated according to the lunar calendar, so the dates get changed every year. Given below are the major festivals commemorated in Malaysia.

Chinese New Year
Amongst the Chinese, the Chinese New Year is the most important annual festival which is observed with many rituals and customs. Lasts for complete 2 weeks, Chinese New Year is celebrated with high spirits in Malaysia too. It is celebrated according to the Chinese Lunar Calendar that was invented around 300 BC.

Hari Raya Puasa
Essentially a Malay term for Eid-ul-fitr, Hari Raya Puasa literally means "Celebration Day of Fasting". This joyous occasion falls on the 1st day of Syawal, the Muslim month. Also called Hari Raya Aidilfitri, it marks the successful completion of fasting during Ramadhan - the ninth month of Islamic Calendar.

Thaipusam
Celebrated largely by the Tamil population, Thaipusam is an important Hindu festival. Like other festivals, Thaipusam too, is celebrated with zeal and fervor in Malaysia. Observed on the full moon of Tamil month - Thai (Jan/Feb), it is marked as a day for penance and atonement among the Hindus.

Deepavali
Signifying the triumph of good over evil, Deepawali is the major festival of the Hindus. People light oil-lamps in their houses to mark the occasion. On the festival eve, people perform rituals and prayers at their homes and temples. Along with all this, different delicacies are made at homes. In Malaysia, people observe the event by open-house invitations to friends and relatives.

Tadau Kaamatan (Harvest Festival)
In Sabah, the aboriginal tribes of Kadazan, Dusun and Murut commemorate their harvest festival in May. At the occasion, offerings are made to the spirit of paddy, Bambaazon. Tapai (rice wine) is liberally consumed throughout the event. Partying usually involves agricultural shows, exhibitions, cultural programs, buffalo races and other customary games.

Christmas
Christmas, the birth of Jesus Christ, is observed by Christians in Malaysia. In the typical style, homes are adorned with decorations, colored lights accompanied by the Christmas tree. Amongst the youngsters, caroling starts days before the big day to usher in the Yuletide spirit. Like other festivals, 'open-house' is observed on the gazetted holiday.

Hungry Ghost Festival
Hungry Ghost Festival is said to be the day when the gates of hell gets open to release the hungry ghosts, according to the Chinese belief. It is observed on the 15th day of the seventh lunar month by the Buddhists and the Taoists. On this day, people remember their deceased family members and make offerings to ward off bad luck.

Lantern & Mooncake Festival (Tang Lung)
Lantern and Mooncake Festival is celebrated by the Chinese throughout Malaysia. Signifies celebration of peace and shared prosperity, the event is marked by lighting of lanterns and enjoying the scrumptious variety of mooncakes. All over the country, these cakes are available as round pastries usually filled with a mixture of sweet red bean paste or lotus nut paste.

Thaiponggol
Celebrated by Tamils, Thaiponggol is a harvest festival that falls somewhere in the second week of January. On this day, farmers get up early in the morning and cook the newly harvested grain to offer the meal to the sun. In urban families, scenario is a bit changed and involves rising, bathing and getting dressed up before dawn. Then lamps are lit and offerings are made to the God.

National Water Festival
Water is of great importance in Malaysian culture, where it serves as a communication system and an economic resource representing the early settlement. With a message of protection and utilization, National Water Festival is celebrated in Malaysia. Tapai, an alcoholic drink made of rice wine, is liberally served on the occasion.


Contents

The Malaysian cuisine is a mixture of cooking cultures from India, China, the Middle East, Indonesia, and several European countries. [3] This diverse culinary culture stems from Malaysia's diverse culture and colonial past. [4] The cuisine was developed as a melange between local and foreign. In the 15th century, the region now known as Malaysia became an important passageway for maritime trade. Passing through Malaysia were Arab traders who brought spices from the Middle East, as well as Portuguese, Dutch, and English colonizers and traders who introduced food staples such as peanuts, pineapples, avocado, tomato, squash and pumpkin. [5] Later, under British rule, the colonizers brought many Chinese and Indian laborers [6] who contributed to the diversity of tastes in Malaysian cuisine. [7]

Pantry essentials Edit

Chilli peppers are indispensable in Malaysian kitchens, and both fresh and dried forms are used. Chillies come in several sizes, shapes and colours. As a general rule, two type of chilli cultivars are the most commonly available: the bird's eye chilli (cili padi code: msa promoted to code: ms ), which although small in size are extremely pungent and very hot and longer varieties, which tend to be much milder. Green chillies are more peppery in taste, while red chillies, green chillies which have been left to ripen, have a slightly sweeter heat. If a milder flavour is preferred, the seeds and membranes are removed from the chilli pods before they are cut, or the chillies are left whole and removed prior to serving. Some common uses include grinding the chillies into a paste or sambal chopping fresh chillies as a condiment or garnish and pickling whole or cut chillies.

Belacan code: msa promoted to code: ms is essential to Malaysian cooking. It is a type of shrimp paste which is pressed into a block and sun-dried. In its raw form it has a pungent smell. Once cooked, the aroma and flavour mellow and contribute a depth of flavour to the dish. [8] To prepare belacan code: msa promoted to code: ms for use, one typically wraps a small amount in foil, which is then roasted over a flame or placed into a preheated oven. Belacan code: msa promoted to code: ms is most commonly pounded or blended with local chilli peppers, shallots and lime juice to make the most popular and ubiquitous relish in Malaysia, sambal belacan code: msa promoted to code: ms . Belacan code: msa promoted to code: ms is also crumbled into a ground spice paste called rempah code: msa promoted to code: ms , which usually includes garlic, ginger, onions or shallots, and fresh or dried chilli peppers. A rempah code: msa promoted to code: ms paste is similar in form and function to an Indian wet masala paste or Thai curry paste, and is often browned and caramelised (Malay: tumis) to mellow the raw flavours of its component ingredients and produce a harmonised finish.

The coconut (Malay: kelapa) is another quintessential feature of Malaysian cuisine, and virtually all parts of the plant are used for culinary purposes. The white fleshy part of the coconut endosperm may be grated, shredded and used as is dried to make desiccated coconut or toasted until dark brown and ground to make kerisik. Grated coconut flesh is also squeezed to make coconut milk, which is used extensively in savoury dishes and desserts throughout the country. Coconut oil is used for cooking and cosmetic purposes, and may be either obtained by processing copra (dried coconut flesh) or extracted from fresh coconuts as virgin coconut oil. Coconut water, the clear liquid found inside the cavity of each coconut, is a popular cooler in Malaysia's hot and humid climate. Gula melaka code: msa promoted to code: ms is unrefined palm sugar produced from the sap of the coconut flower. It is the most traditional sweetener in Malaysian cooking and imbues a rich caramel-like flavour with a hint of coconut. Coconut fronds are traditionally used to wrap food, hollowed out coconut husks and shells may be used as a source of charcoal fuel for barbecued meats and traditional pastry making, and even the apical bud or growing tip of the coconut palm is a popular delicacy served in rural communities and specialty restaurants.

Soy sauce of different varieties is another important ingredient. Light soy sauce contributes its pleasantly salty flavour to a variety of stir-fries, marinades and steamed dishes. In some hawker establishments, freshly sliced or pickled chillies arrive immersed in light soy sauce to be used for dipping. Dark soy sauce is thicker, more intense in flavour and less salty. It is often used when a heartier flavour is desired, particularly with masak kicap code: msa promoted to code: ms (a style of braising with a blend of soy sauce varieties) dishes, and also to darken the color of a dish. Kicap manis, sweetened soy sauce sometimes flavoured with star anise or garlic, is also a popular seasoning for cooking. The sweet and savoury taste of kicap manis code: msa promoted to code: ms also functions as a substitute to approximate the combination of dark soy sauce and thick caramel sauce, which is primarily used to colour and season stewed dishes.

Common herbs include lemongrass (Malay: serai), a type of grass with a lemony aroma and flavour. Young, fresh stems are more desirable as older stems tend to acquire a woody texture. The tender white part closest to the base of the stem is thinly sliced and eaten raw in salads, or pounded with other aromatics to make a rempah code: msa promoted to code: ms . It is also used whole in boiled and simmered dishes. The pandan (screwpine) leaf is the Asian equivalent of vanilla in Western cuisine. Its subtle aroma is released when the leaves are bruised by tying one or two long leaves into a knot, and used for cooking curries, rice and desserts. The leaves can also be used to wrap items like rice, chicken or fish for cooking. Pandan leaf is also available in liquid essence or powdered form to flavour and colour cakes. Turmeric (Malay: kunyit) is a rhizome popular for its flavour as well as colouring properties. The leaves and flowers of the turmeric plant are also used in cooking or eaten raw.

Tofu products, specifically fried tofu, are widely used as cooking ingredients and as side accompaniments. While fried tofu can be bland in flavour on its own, its main contribution is texture and especially with tofu puffs, the ability to soak up the flavour of whatever they are cooked in. Fried tofu products are found as a versatile component ingredient for dishes like stir fried noodles, rojak (fruit and vegetable salad), noodle soups, and stews. A popular way of serving fried tofu on its own is a salad with bean sprouts, shredded cucumber and spring onions, covered in a thick sweet and spicy dressing and dusted with roasted ground peanuts. Fried tofu may also be stuffed with a mixture of ground meat or shredded vegetables.

Dried seafood products contribute a savoury depth of flavour to some Malaysian dishes. Small dried anchovies, known as ikan bilis code: msa promoted to code: ms , are very popular. It acquires a crispy texture when deep-fried, and is served as an accompaniment or prepared as a sambal code: msa promoted to code: ms relish in this capacity. Ikan bilis code: msa promoted to code: ms is also boiled to make fish stock in fact, instant ikan bilis code: msa promoted to code: ms stock granules are a popular seasoning in modern kitchens. Dried shrimp and salted dried fish are also used in various ways.

Other essential seasoning and garnishes include tamarind (Malay: asam jawa), specifically the paste-like pulp extracted from the fruit pod which contributes a tart flavour to many dishes. Candlenuts (Malay: buah keras) are similar in appearance to macadamia nuts, being round, cream-coloured and having a high oil content. Candlenuts are normally ground to thicken sauces. Lup cheong code: msa promoted to code: ms is a type of dried Chinese sausage made from pork and spices. Mainly used by the Malaysian Chinese community, these sweet sausages are usually sliced very thinly and added for additional flavour and texture. Recent studies have shown that there are 62 commonly consumed Malaysian foods that include biogenic amines.

Rice Edit

Rice (Malay: nasi) is the most important staple food in Malaysia. According to Indonesian-born food and cookery writer Sri Owen, there is some evidence for rice cultivation found in the state of Sarawak in Malaysian Borneo dated 2300 BC, and about 900 years of history for the state of Kelantan in West Malaysia. Today Malaysia produces about seventy percent of the amount of rice it needs to support itself and the rest is imported. [9] This is a matter of policy as the government believes that national resources can be used more profitably instead of attempting to achieve self-sufficiency with rice production the prevalent attitude is that revenue generated from its industries enables the country to import up to half the rice it needs. [10] Nevertheless, the government is fully committed and involved in planning, allocating resources and managing subsidies for the rice farming industry. The state of Kedah is considered the "rice bowl" [11] [12] (Malay: jelapang padi) of the country, accounting for about half of Malaysia's total production of rice.

Plain steamed white rice, to be served with side dishes of meat or vegetables, is typically prepared with an electric rice cooker at home. Some households and food establishments prefer to cook rice on a stove top with the absorption method or the rapid-boil method. Compressed rice, called nasi himpit, is another method of preparing and cooking rice: the rice is wrapped with fronds or leaves and compressed into the form of a cylinder, which is then cooked by boiling. The rice would compress and merge during the cooking process. Compressed rice is usually eaten cold with some sort of gravy, although it may be served warm in a broth or soup. A notable variant of compressed rice prepared by the Bugis community is burasak: rice is precooked with coconut milk before it is wrapped in banana leaves and steamed until fully cooked.

Besides the ubiquitous white rice, there are different types of locally grown and imported rice available in the market, and each type has a specific cooking method to bring out optimal results. [13] Glutinous rice (Malay: pulut) is one example: because of its low amylose and high amylopectin content which results in a sticky texture after cooking, glutinous rice is prepared with different measurements and techniques and is not suitably interchangeable with regular rice. It is typically used for making snacks and desserts, but glutinous rice is also prepared as a savoury staple by indigenous peoples like the Orang Asli as well as the Dayak people of Borneo. Lemang is glutinous rice roasted in a hollowed bamboo tube, and is prepared for festive occasions like Ari Gawai, Hari Raya Aidilfitri, and Hari Raya Aidiladha. [14]

Nasi lemak Edit

A popular dish based on rice in Malaysia is nasi lemak code: msa promoted to code: ms , rice steamed with coconut milk and pandan leaves to give it a rich fragrance. Of Malay origin, nasi lemak code: msa promoted to code: ms is very popular and frequently referred to as the national dish. [15] It is customarily served with ikan bilis code: msa promoted to code: ms or fried anchovies, peanuts, sliced cucumber, hard-boiled eggs and sambal. Although it is often considered a breakfast dish, it is served in a variety of ways and commonly eaten at any time of day due to its versatility. For a more substantial meal, nasi lemak code: msa promoted to code: ms may be served with fried chicken, curries, or a spicy meat stew called rendang.

Congee Edit

Congee is a type of rice porridge or gruel popular among Malaysia's ethnic communities. It is eaten primarily as a breakfast food or late supper. It is also considered particularly suitable for the sick as a mild, easily digestible food. [16] Congee is called bubur code: msa promoted to code: ms in Malay 粥 written in Chinese, pronounced as zhou in Mandarin Chinese and juk in Cantonese and kanji (கஞ்சி) in Tamil. It may be served plain with little embellishment, or cooked with ingredients like fish slices, seafood, chicken, beef, pork, vegetables, and spices. The importance and popularity of congee in the Malaysian diet is such that bubur ayam or chicken congee is a permanent fixture on the menu of Malaysian McDonald's restaurants. [17]

Noodles Edit

Noodles are another popular staple, particularly in Malaysian Chinese cuisine, but used by other groups as well. Noodles such as bi hoon (米粉, Hokkien: bí-hún, Malay: bihun code: msa promoted to code: ms rice vermicelli), kuay teow (粿條, Hokkien: kóe-tiâu) or ho fun (河粉, Cantonese: ho4 fan2 flat rice noodles), mee (麵 or 面, Hokkien: mī, Malay: mi code: msa promoted to code: ms yellow noodles), mee suah (麵線 or 面线, Hokkien: mī-sòaⁿ wheat vermicelli), yee meen (伊麵 or 伊面, Cantonese: ji1 min6 golden wheat noodles), dongfen (冬粉, Hokkien: tang-hún, Cantonese: dung1 fan2 cellophane noodles), Lao Shu Fen (老鼠粉, Cantonese: lou5 syu2 fan2 silver needle noodles), and others provide an alternative source of carbohydrate to a serving of rice that accompanies every meal. Stir-fried noodle dishes (Malay: mee goreng) are ubiquitous throughout Malaysia's cities, towns and villages, with numerous localised variants prepared by various ethnic communities according to their culinary traditions and preferences.


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